Gross description, Specific Gravity, Strip Test (pH, Protein, Glucose, Ketones, Bilirubin, Blood (Haem), Leukocytes, Nitrates, Urobilinogen), Sediment Examination
Plain container (yellow top)
Urine collection can be aided by giving water by a crop tube – the bird will often urinate shortly after. Avian urine has a concentrated white to off white uric acid component and clear watery component – the watery fraction is assessed. A fresh or recently refrigerated sample is required. Prolonged storage causes lysis of cells.
pH - Ranges from 6.0-8.0 (diet related)
Protein - Trace amounts normal
Glucose - Trace amounts normal in some species. Will occur if blood glucose is >33.3 mmol/L.
Ketones - Negative in normal birds. Increased with diabetes & increased fat metabolism
Specific gravity - 1.005-1.020
Bilirubin - Not normally present. Biliverdin is the major bile pigment which does not react with the mammalian urine dip stick
Blood - Negative or trace
Nitrates - Unreliable in birds
Urates - White, pale yellow and pale grey are normal
Liver disease - Urates are yellow to green
Sediment - RBC & WBC: normal <3/HPF. Epithelial cells: Normally none present. Casts: Presence is associated with renal disease. Bacteria: False positive with faecal contamination of urine (can proliferate in transit.